Racism and xenophobia continue to be an affliction in different domains (sociocultural, educational, work, political, etc.). One cause is a lack of knowledge and understanding of the various realities in which individuals can find themselves, such as when they decide to migrate. Thus, migrant women in particular face a double discrimination: because they are women and because they are migrants. In this sense, the feminisation of migration must be approached from an intersectional and integral perspective. An honest and efficient response must be given to all the difficulties. Policies that closely address migrant women’s true realities must be drawn up.
Based on the conceptual analysis set out in the previous chapters, combating racism and xenophobia requires, in addition to public policies, a constant work of citizen awareness, as well as training processes for migrant women. Likewise, the continuous training of professionals who work in social, educational, health, labour domains, etc. is essential to achieve adequate socio-educational interventions, involving both public and private entities.
Below, we outline socio-educational measures and practices to combat racism and xenophobia which centre on migrant women.
- The Spanish Observatory of Racism and Xenophobia (OBERAXE), within its framework of action, collects information on projects, surveys, resources, reports and studies, promoted by the Secretary of State for Migration and by other ministerial departments, entities and institutions. The objective is to serve as a platform for knowledge, analysis and the promotion of work to combat racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and other forms of intolerance, as well as incidents and hate crimes. It operates in collaboration with public administrations and civil society at national, European Union and international levels. For more information: https://www.inclusion.gob.es/oberaxe/es/index.htm
- The CEPAIM entity developed the SOM project against racism and xenophobia in 2021. It has achieved a lot regarding awareness-raising on this matter, improving intercultural coexistence and curbing racist and / or xenophobic attitudes and behaviours. Specifically, a section for migrant women can be consulted in the following link https://www.cepaim.org/terminamos-el-proyecto-som-contra-el-racismo-y-la-xenofobia-con-mucho-conseguido/
- Andalucía Acoge is launching ALEPPO IV: Training and improvement programme for professionals and volunteers working on intercultural mediation and gender, prevention and management of gender violence in support programmes, the management of labour insertion in the face of diversity, reception and social inclusion of applicants and beneficiaries of international protection, as well as the management of migrant reception on the coast. They also carry out other state projects: "Amal" socio-labour interventions with migrants deprived of freedom; Humanitarian care; Cambalache; "Faguas" Comprehensive intervention with women in the socio-family sphere; "Globalemplea"; " Kay Pacha" Community action in Andalusia and Melilla neighbourhoods; "Kleos" Asylum, refugees and people under international protection; "Nemesis" Legal intervention programme for the migrant population; "Shakti"; STOP RUMORES (Phase VI) Programme aimed at combating xenophobic and discriminatory stereotypes, prejudices and discourses about the immigrant population; "WELTI; TARHIB; EQUIPAMIENTO: Equipment and adaptation of buildings designed to receive and support applicants and beneficiaries of international protection; EQUILEM. Moreover, at the international European level, it carries out: In medias Res without borders; Support me-supporting practitioners to train migrants in the EU; Youth together for refugees, among others; For further information: https://acoge.org/proyectos/
To end the chapter, we present a success story about a migrant woman in Spain, entitled "I want to see myself, I want you to see me. From Puerto Rico to Spain", accessible at https://viw.pixel-online.org/case_view.php?id=NjI = In this case the protagonist tells about the obstacles she encountered to her integration. She notably describes how some entities were disinformed, which generated fear and uncertainty during her stay in the host country.
Refugee and migrant women
This UN web portal includes consultable updated material on the situation of migrant and refugee women: news, videos, infographics with statistical data, etc.
Good educational practices for the integration of migrants
This guide presents awareness-raising actions against racism and xenophobia to support social integration in schools.
Prejudice, ethnocentrism and institutional racism in social policies and social service professionals who work with migrants
This article analyses the institutional and social racism found in social policies, despite a written discourse which is supposed to go precisely in the opposite direction.
Muslim women wearing the niqab in Spain: Dialogues around discrimination, identity and freedom (2020). https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0147176719303335?casa_token=hUEoIvGFoGgAAAAA:jnv9HwtO5PD4gjedieBV3PbQyhtnqhocEcl3XkLmOEbLDBACfiFmBiW3bDLUgYu2iWqWcXVfDQ
This article analyses stories of Muslim women wearing niqabs in Spain, exploring the adverse experiences they face, as well as ways to transform them. The article highlights the different kinds of discrimination, prejudice, personal attacks and social isolation that these women suffer in their daily lives.